Mittwoch, 24.10.2018 07:25 Uhr

Communist Party of China Congress

Verantwortlicher Autor: Carlo Marino Beijing/Rome, 18.10.2017, 11:13 Uhr
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Beijing/Rome [ENA] Xi Jinping said Wednesday that "historic shifts" have been made in the cause of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the country in the past five years. Xi made the remarks in a report to the 19th CPC National Congress in the Great Hall of the People in central Beijing. According to a communique released during 19th CPC National Congress, China has witnessed deep and fundamental changes over the past five years.

Its achievements are wide-ranging and innovative. These momentous changes and achievements indicate that China's development stands at a new historical starting point, which is of great and far-reaching significance for the cause of the Party and the country. China, for two decades the most dynamic of the largest economies in the World, estimated the unsustainability of its development model: export led growth concentrated in a few regions. Right now China is celebrating the 19th CPC National Congress and it’s aiming at a significant change from the existing development approach to a more offsetting endogenous growth, outspreading it to its neighboring countries.

By investing in infrastructure, particularly logistics, transport and energy as well as services in its weak regions, China plans to reinforce cohesion and rebalance its domestic markets through a wave of trade and promoting growth dynamics in the Eurasian continent and in South East Asia. This is a major strategic change, beneficial in “developing a global regional strategy” with a wider range, efficient to reach quite a lot of objectives.

The plan “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) at the same time targets to reduce the historic Chinese isolation, strengthening the neighboring countries’ economies alongside with their ties with China, create well fit out territorial corridors for securing and improving the flow of trade from China towards the West and the South East at the same time ensuring the provision of energy and raw materials for the internal necessities. China is embracing a small scale territorial approach in policy implementation and the way areas are targeted. This approach implies that great importance is given to the local dimension of development and functional areas are essential to define coherent and well-organized interventions.

The Chinese experience seems flexible and malleable, as it can change fiscal rules for a specific and limited area. China merges regional policy into national development policies and its governance reflects the governance of the entire public expenditure system: for the most part regionalized in the implementation but strategically oriented from the centre. In China, competition between local authorities is an important way to promote efficiency and proactive attitudes. This competition promotes policy implementation, but sometimes negatively influences coordination and collaboration between officials. However, at the level of local authorities nested usually the deleterious vice of corruption.

Calling corruption "the greatest threat" the Party faces, Xi Jinping said the fight against corruption never ends and currently remains grave and complex. "We must remain as firm as a rock in our resolve to build on the overwhelming momentum and secure a sweeping victory," he declared. In general, the country went through a weak coordination between institutions and the inadequate definition of the roles and the powers of the different actors. Trade and economic integration, cannot occur if discrepancies are too large and integration benefits are not disseminated. The same worry inspired the radical reform of the European Structural Funds in 1989 and the following adjustments to make EU enlargements possible.

The Chinese regional policy cannot be categorized in a specific fund or policy framework and therefore its governance includes the entire public administration and its multi-level organization. Furthermore, China is still moving from a planned economy to a market economy and this entails a continuing and still not comprehensive involvement of private actors and market mechanisms in the decision making processes. The administration is organized hierarchically and the career of administrative officials is decided by the higher tiers of the administration and the Communist Party commission. Economic performance of the managed territory is an important criterion in their evaluation.

Combined with the decentralization of economic development initiatives this Cadre Responsibility System creates strong competition and improves local economic performance. The status of an official does not depend only on the position in the hierarchy, but also on the positions of other officials with whom he/she interacts (as in the old mandarin system) and, consequently, a top level manager of a local authority may be subordinated to a manager of a local state owned company.

This administrative system is quite efficient in promoting competitiveness and motivation among officials, but it can also create confusion in the division of power, coordination problems and forms of local “protectionism” by competing, instead of collaborating, with the neighbor administrations or officials. The general national development policy and the main regional strategies are recognized in the 5-year plans for National Economic and Social development. In agreement with this national strategy, development plans are defined at provincial level and approved by the central government. Other plans operate on a smaller geographic scale (county, municipality).

In these plans the increasing transition to a market economy has amplified the use of spatial approaches to tackle and legalize the private use of land rather than a pure economic approach. The different provincial plans are not obligatory or stringently interrelated and their scheduling may differ, but all must be consistent with national priorities. The hierarchical organization of the development policy does not preclude participation and debate on economic and territorial priorities at each administrative level.

"The country also saw major achievements in economic development and major breakthroughs in comprehensively deepening reform. Democratic and legal system construction has taken great steps. Ideological and cultural construction has made important progress. People's living standards have constantly improved," Xi Jinping said. China aims at inspiring world with a landmark congress of key importance as the Country embarks on a decisive stage of building a moderately prosperous society, and a crucial phase to develop socialism with Chinese characteristics.

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